Self-awareness as Nisei Brazilians

The São Paulo Japanese Student League was a social organization formed by Japanese students from secondary schools and higher education institutions on October 21, 1934. "Gakuyu" (Schoolmate) was an official bulletin of it. In this article passages "Our homeland is Brazil. We cannot love a faraway country we have never seen nor chrysanthemum flowers." (Its original was in Portuguese. This is translation) caused a commotion when some people among the Japanese immigrant community denounced the article for less majesty. In October 1934, the Consulate General began providing assistance for school expenses through the São Paulo Japanese School Parents' Association, however as a result of this problem, those who received the assistance grants from the Japanese Government were ordered to withdraw from the São Paulo Japanese Student League (the Chrysanthemum Incident (Student league incident)).

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