Self-awareness as Nisei Brazilians

The São Paulo Japanese Student League was a social organization formed by Japanese students from junior high school and higher education institutions on October 21, 1934. "Gakuyu" (Schoolmate) was an official bulletin of it. In this article passages "Our homeland is Brazil. We cannot love a faraway country we have never seen nor chrysanthemum flowers." (originally in Portuguese, here translated) caused a commotion when some people among Japanese migrant society denounced the article for lese majesty. In October of the same year, the Consulate General began providing assistance for school expenses through the São Paulo Japanese School Parents' Association, however as a result of this problem, those who received the assistance grants from the Japanese government were ordered to withdraw from the São Paulo Japanese Student League (Called the Chrysanthemum Incident (Student league incident)).

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