Economist. After he graduated from the Imperial University of Tokyo in 1885, he went to Europe to study economics and law. He first studied economics, especially social economics, in Germany and then got interested in societal issues in the U.K., where he proceeded to master applied economics. He returned to Japan in 1890 and in the same year started to serve as a professor at the Law Department of the Imperial University of Tokyo, where he remained until 1925. In 1897 he established the Japanese Association for Social Policy Studies and advocated the policy of protecting workers’ rights. During the debate over going to war with Russia in 1903, he supported the Russo-Japanese War and presented the Proposal by the Seven Scholars. He was allowed membership in the Imperial Academy in 1908. His works include Shakai Keizaigaku (Social Economics) and Keizaigaku Kenkyu-ho (Research Method of Economics).