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A main chronological table

Ka'ei-Keio

Year
Month, Day
Event
Historical Record
Ka'ei 6(1853) June 3(July 8) U.S. East India Fleet led by Commodore Matthew Perry arrives in Uraga Harbor "Gasshukoku Shokan Wage" 'Translations of Letters from the United States [President]'
Ka'ei 7(1854) January 16(February 13) Perry revisits Japan, and begins talks the following month with shogunate representatives in the village of Yokohama  
  March 3(March 31) Signing of the U.S.-Japan Treaty of Peace and Amity Copy of the U.S.-Japan Treaty of Peace and Amity
Ansei 5(1858) June 19(July 29) Signing of the U.S.-Japan Treaty of Amity and Commerce  
  September 7(October 13) Start of the "Ansei no Taigoku" purge of over 100 people from the shogunate, various clans, and the Imperial court by Tokugawa Regent II Naosuke to quell opposition to his handling of the shogunal succession and the treaty with the U.S. (continued until II's assassination for signing the treaty without the Emperor's permission, in the Sakurada Gate Incident of March 24, 1860, or Man'en 1)  
Bunkyu 3(1863) August 18(September 30) Forbidden Gates Incident ("Kinmon no Hen"), leading to the expulsion of the advocates of "respect the Emperor and expel the barbarians" from the Imperial Court  
Keio 2(1866) January 21(March 7) Satsuma and Choshu clans sign secret pact to topple the Tokugawa Shogunate  
Keio 3(1867·1868) June Tosa clan samurai led by GOTO Shojiro recommend to previous clan lord YAMAUCHI Toyoshige the restoration of political power to the Emperor  
  October 13(November 8) Emperor issues edict terminating the Tokugawa Shogunate  
  October 14(November 9) The last Shogun, TOKUGAWA Yoshinobu, submits to the Imperial Court the proposal for the restoration of political power to the Emperor  
  November SAKAMOTO Ryoma drafts Memorandum on "Senchu Hassaku" ('Eight Proposals Made in a Boat') Shin Seifu Koryo Hassaku (Eight Point Program for a New Government)
  November

NISHI Amane develops his theory of government, in "Gidai Soan" (Proposed Agenda)

Draft of Discussion Topics, or Proposed Agenda ("Gidai Soan")
      Annex to Draft of Discussion Topics, or Proposed Agenda ("Besshi Gidai Soan")
  December 9(January 3) Command issued restoring Imperial rule, giving birth to new Meiji Government  
  December 17(January 11) Meiji Government establishes system of three main ministers to the Emperor -- "sosai" (director-general or president), "gitei" and "sanyo"  
Keio 4(1868) leap April 21(June 11) Promulgation of "Seitaisho" ('Form of Government'), prescribing establishment of Dajokan (Grand Council of State) system (8 branches), with administrative, legislative and judicial separation of powers  

Meiji Era

Year
Month, Day
Event
Historical Record
Meiji 2(1869) July 8(August 15) Revision in governmental bureaucratic structure (2 branches, 6 ministries), formulation of Government Personnel Act  
Meiji 4(1871) July 29(September 13) Further bureaucratic revision (3 "governments" _ center, right and left -- and 8 ministries), formulation of Dajokan (Grand Council of State) personnel system and description of duties Original Version, "History of Grand Council of State Personnel System"
  November 12(December 23) IWAKURA Mission departs Yokohama port for Europe and America (returns in September 1873, or Meiji 6) ITO Hirobumi's handwritten diary of his foreign journey
Meiji 5(1872) April MIYAJIMA Seiichiro proposes formulation of constitution to the Sain ('Left Government') Proposal for the Formulation of a Constitution ("Rikkokukengi")
      Origins of the Compilation of the National Constitution ("Kokken Hensan Kigen")
Meiji 6(1873) October 25 Their "Conquer Korea" argument having been defeated, SAIGO Takamori, ITAGAKI Taisuke, et al., resign as "sangi" (so-called Political Upheaval of 1873, or Meiji 6) 1873 (Meiji 6), Councilor OKUBO's Draft Opinion on Constitutional Government
Meiji 7(1874) January 12 Formation of Aikoku Koto (Public Society of Patriots) Aikoku Koto Pledge (Draft)
      Aikoku Koto Appended Pledge (Draft)
  January 17 Submission of White Paper for the Establishment of a Popularly-elected Assembly Draft of Petition for the Establishment of a Popularly elected Assembly (three versions)
  April 1 Formation of Risshisha (Society of Self-reliance)  
  - AOKI Shuzo draws up constitutional draft, "Teigo Dai-Nippon Constitution" Teigo Dai-Nippon Constitution (Draft)
Meiji 8(1875) February 11 OKUBO Toshimichi, KIDO Takayoshi, ITAGAKI Taisuke and others meet to discuss the form of government (Osaka Conference) Blueprint for Governmental Reform
      Draft Proposal for Osaka Conference Agreement
      Addendum to the Draft Proposal of the Osaka Conference Agreement
  April 14 Imperial edict issued to gradually establish a constitutional form of government Imperial Rescript Establishing a Constitutional Form of Government
  June 24 Opening of 1st Local Official Council (until July 17)  
Meiji 9(1876) September 6 Imperial rescript issued to Chamber of Elders (Genroin) to draft national constitution Proposal for a Japanese National Constitution
  October Uprisings throughout western Japan by disgruntled former samurai  
Meiji 10(1877) February 15 SAIGO Takamori leads band of troops in Kagoshima, starting the Satsuma Rebellion (lasts until October 24) Report of the Artillery Attack Against (Saigo Forces) in Shiroyama
  June Risshisha submits Petition to Establish a National Assembly to Chamber of Elders (Genroin) and "Sain" (Left Government) Copy of Risshisha's Petition Paper
Meiji 13(1880) March 17 Formation of League for Establishing a National Assembly at convention of Aikokusha (Society of Patriots) Petition Requesting Permission to Establish a National Assembly
      Petition Requesting Permission to Establish a National Assembly, Appendix
  July IWAKURA Tomomi sends Emperor his opinion on the constitution Discussion of Outline of Constitution
Meiji 14(1881) August Risshisha's UEKI Emori writes "Toyo Dai-Nippon National Constitution Proposal" Toyo Dai-Nippon National Constitution Proposal
  October 11 Conference before the emperor decides on direction of policy supporting establishment of national assembly, and dismisses OKUMA Shigenobu as "sangi" (Political Upheaval of 1881, or Meiji 14) OKUMA Shigenobu's Report to the Emperor (copy)
Meiji 15(1882) March 14 ITO Hirobumi sets sail from Yokohama for Europe to investigate various constitutions Imperial Order to Dispatch Mission Head Plenipotentiary ITO to Europe to Study Constitutional Forms of Government
Meiji 18(1885) December 22 Abolition of Dajokan system, and its replacement by the Cabinet system (first prime minister is ITO Hirobumi) Authority of the Cabinet Edict
Meiji 19(1886) October 24 Upsurge of Daido Danketsu (Coalition) movement, led by HOSHI Toru Report
Meiji 20(1887) June

 

ITO Hirobumi, ITO Miyoji, KANEKO Kentaro and others begin deliberating constitutional draft at ITO Hirobumi's villa in Natsushima (Kanagawa Prefecture)

Natsushima Draft Proposal
      Constitution of the Empire of Japan (clean copy), March Proposal
Meiji 22(1889) February 11 Promulgation of Meiji Constitution (Constitution of the Empire of Japan)  
  February 12 Prime Minister KURODA Kiyotaka gives speech on political "transcendentalism" (i.e., separation of government from political parties) on occasion of the promulgation of the constitution Prime Minister KURODA's Speech on the Occasion of the Promulgation of the Constitution
  October 18 Foreign Minister OKUMA Shigenobu wounded seriously by bomb thrown by KURUSHIMA Koki (temporarily halting negotiations for treaty revision) Draft of a Directive Telegraphed to Legations Overseas
Meiji 23(1890) July 1 1st general election of House of Representatives House of Representatives Member Certificate
  July 10 1st House of Peers mutual-voting election by lower-ranked peers (counts, viscounts, barons) List and Ballot of Viscount Candidates for Election to the House of Peers
  September 15 Inaugural ceremony of Constitutional Liberal Party [Items to be Studies for the Constitutional Liberal Parties Platform]
  November 29 Opening ceremony of 1st Imperial Diet Letter from INOUE Kowashi to ITO Hirobumi
      Nishiki-e of the Imperial Diet Building
Meiji 25(1892) February 15 2nd general election of House of Representatives; electoral interference by MATSUKATA Cabinet develops into political problem List of Candidates for Election to the House of Representatives
      Sugoroku (game of dice) Lampooning Diet Members
Meiji 26(1893) January-February Government and People's Parties clash in 4th Diet over issue of warship construction expenses [Draft of Imperial Edict for Reconciliation]
Meiji 27(1894) July 16 Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation signed (eliminating consular courts for British nationals)  
  August 1 Japan declares war on Qing (Ching) China, starting 1st Sino-Japanese War Draft of Kenken Yoroku (Volume One)
      HAYASHI Tadasu's letter to MUTSU Munemitsu
Meiji 28(1895) April 17 Shimonoseki Treaty signed between Japan and Qing (Ching) China, ending war  
Meiji 29(1896) March 1 Formation of Shinpoto (Progressive Party), based mainly on Rikken Kaishinto (Constitutional Reform Party) Outline of Prime Minister ITO's Statement of His Policies
Meiji 31(1898) June 22 Jiyuto (Liberal Party) and Shinpoto (Progressive Party) merge, forming the Kenseito (Constitutional Party) Proclamation
  June 30 Formation of 1st OKUMA Shigenobu Cabinet ("Waihan" Cabinet) Record of ITO-OKUMA-ITAGAKI Meeting
Meiji 33(1900) September 15 Formation of the Rikken Seiyukai ('Friends of the Constitutional Government Party') Draft Proposal of the Rikken Seiyukai By Laws
      Rikken Seiyukai By Laws
Meiji 34(1901) May 18 Formation of the Socialist Party by ABE Iso'o and others; banned the same day Copy of the Notification of Social Democratic Party Formation, and Party By Laws
  September 7 Signing of Boxer Protocol (Peace Agreement between China and the Great Powers) KATSURA Taro Autobiography, Volume Three (Section on the Hokushin Incident)
Meiji 35(1902) January 30 (1st) Anglo-Japanese Alliance agreement signed Entente with the Great Britain and Germany, and the Russo-Japanese Alliance
Meiji 37(1904) February 10 Japan declares war on Russia, initiating Russo-Japanese War Notes from the Front, No. 1
Meiji 38(1905) September 5 Portsmouth Treaty signed between Japan and Russia, ending war  
  - Start of so-called "Keion" era (KATSURA and SAIONJI alternate the prime ministership) (through 1912) Letter from SAIONJI Kinmochi to KATSURA Taro
      Letter from SAIONJI Kinmochi to KATSURA Taro
Meiji 43(1910) May 25 Arrests begin in the High Treason Incident (plot by socialists and anarchists to assassinate the Emperor)  
  August 22 Treaty signed annexing Korea to Japan KATSURA Taro Memorandum
Meiji 44(1911) February 21 Japanese-American Treaty of Commerce and Navigation revised and signed (establishing tariff autonomy)  

Taisho Era

Year Month, Day Event Historical Record
Meiji 45,Taisho 1(1912) December 5 2nd SAIONJI Kinmochi Cabinet resigns en masse YAMAGATA Aritomo's Opinion Brief
      Letter from UEHARA Yusaku to KATSURA Taro
  December 19 Kensei Yogo ('Protect Constitutional Government') Convention held in Tokyo, then spreads nationwide (1st Movement to Protect Constitutional Government)  
  December 21 Formation of 3rd KATSURA Taro Cabinet  
Taisho 2(1913) February 7 Prime Minister KATSURA makes declaration of Rikken Doshikai ('Constitutioned Association of Friends')  
  February 20 Formation of 1st YAMAMOTO Gonbee Cabinet  
  December 23 Inaugural ceremony of the Rikken Doshikai ('Constitutioned Association of Friends') Draft of General Principles and Platform of the Rikken Doshikai
Taisho 3(1914) March 24 YAMAMOTO Cabinet resigns en masse  
  April 16 Formation of 2nd OKUMA Shigenobu Cabinet Account Summarizing the Meeting between Marquis INOUE and Count OKUMA
  July 28 Austria declares war on Serbia, starting the First World War (or "Great War")  
  August 23 Japan declares war on Germany Account of Prime Minister OKUMA's Meeting with Four Genro
Taisho 4(1915) January 18 Japan imposes 21 Demands on China  
Taisho 5(1916) October 9 Formation of TERAUCHI Masatake Cabinet  
Taisho 6(1917) November 7 Formation of Soviet government in Russia (October Revolution)  
Taisho 7(1918) August 2 TERAUCHI Cabinet orders Siberian Expedition by Japanese military Opinion Brief on the Dispatch of Troops to Siberia
  August 3 Rice riot breaks out in Nishimizuhashi-cho, Nakaniikawa-gun, Toyama Prefecture, then spreads nationwide 1918 (Taisho 7) Diary
  September 21 TERAUCHI Cabinet resigns en masse  
  September 29 Formation of HARA Takashi Cabinet Political Daily, Vol. One
  November 11 First World War ends  
Taisho 8(1919) January 18 Paris Peace Conference begins (through June 28) Japan's Policy in Peace Conference
  February 9 Universal (Manhood) Suffrage Convention held in Tokyo; universal (manhood) suffrage movement spreads nationwide Resolution of the Nationwide Universal Manhood Suffrage Federation (Zenkoku Fusen Rengokai)
  March 1 Independence demonstrations throughout Korea (March 1 Independence Movement)  
  May 4 Student demonstration in Peking (Beijing) (so-called May 4 Movement)  
  June 28 Signing of the Versailles Peace Treaty  
Taisho 9(1920) January 10 League of Nations launched, and Japan becomes member  
March 15 Stock market crash, setting off the post-First World War depression  
Taisho 10(1921) November 4 Prime Minister HARA stabbed and murdered at Tokyo Station; Cabinet resigns en masse Telegram from MATSUMOTO Gokichi to HIRATA Tosuke
  November 12 Washington Naval Conference begins (lasting until February 6, 1922)  
  November 13 Formation of TAKAHASHI Korekiyo Cabinet Manuscript of Prime Minister's Inaugural Speech
Taisho 12(1923) September 1 Great Kanto Earthquake (tens of thousands killed in Tokyo and Yokohama) Diary of 1923
  December 27 Attempted shooting of Crown Prince Regent Hirohito (Toranomon Incident)  
Taisho 13(1924) January 2nd Movement to Protect Constitutional Government Notes on the Establishment of the KIYOURA Cabinet
  June 11 Formation of 1st KATO Takaaki Cabinet  
Taisho 14(1925) May 5 Promulgation of revision to House of Representatives Election Law (implementing universal manhood suffrage) Draft of the three Factions' Committee's Decision on Universal Manhood Suffrage
      Decision of Cabinet on Peace Preservation Law

Showa Era

Year Month, Day Event Historical Record
Showa 2(1927) June 1 Formation of the Rikken Minseito  
Showa 3(1928) February 20 16th general election (1st election with universal manhood suffrage) Gist of Speech Delivered at Rikken Minseito's Kansai Convention
      "Major Policies of the Seiyukai" (Tokyo Nichinichi Shinbun)
      Principles and Charter of the Rikken Minseito Prior to the First Manhood Suffrage Election (Tokyo Nichinichi Shinbun)
      Election Guideline (Home Ministry)
      Election Poster
      Measure and Report of the Japan Ronoto Party Headquarters, Presented at Its First National Convention
  June 4 Assassination of Chinese warlord Zhang Zuo-lin (Chang Tso-lin) by Japanese Kwangtung Army soldiers  
Showa 4(1929) July 2 Formation of HAMAGUCHI Osachi Cabinet Diary of HAMAGUCHI Osachi
Showa 5(1930) January 11 Release of restriction on gold exports (through April 22)  
  January 21 London Naval Conference opens  
  April- Problem of prerogative of supreme command (by Army and Navy)  
  October 1 London Naval Treaty approved by plenary session of the Privy Council Full Account of Japan's Position at the London Conference
      SHIDEHARA Kijuro's Letter to MAKINO Nobuaki
      Kitsugai Shimatsu (A Memoir)
  November 14 Shooting of Prime Minister HAMAGUCHI Osachi at Tokyo Station (not immediately fatal) Daily Log of the 59th Diet Proceedings
Showa 6(1931) September 18 Mukden Incident (Manchurian Incident), after which Japan occupies Manchuria Army Disarmament and Prince SAIONJI [1] 11th (iii) to (vi), from HARADA Kumao's Diary
Showa 7(1932) March 1 Declaration of founding of the state of Manchukuo  
  May 15 May 15 Incident (assassination attempt on Prime Minister INUKAI) Memorandum of SAIONJI Kinmochi
  July 15 House of Representatives Committee decides on Outline of Diet Revitalization and Discipline Diet Revitalization and Discipline Blueprint
  October 24 Establishment of Great Japan National Defense Women's Association Folding Fan
Showa 8(1933) March 27 Japan quits League of Nations after being condemned for Manchurian occupation  
Showa 9(1934) November 20 Arrest of young Army officers for plotting coup d'etat (Military School Incident) Memorandum on the Army Purge, MURANAKA Koji and ISOBE Asaichi
Showa 10(1935) February 18 KIKUCHI Takeo condemns "Emperor as an Organ of State" theory before House of Peers Biboroku ("Diary"), Vol. 7
  May 8 Promulgation of Clean Election Committee Act Clean Election Women's Federation's Agreement : Patriotic Women's Association, Appealing to the 40 Million Women of Japan for Clean Elections
Showa 11(1936) February 26 February 26 Incident (failed coup d'etat) Army Minister Bulletin
  May 18 Restoration of the system of active duty officers serving as War and Naval Ministers  
Showa 12(1937) January 29 UGAKI Kazushige tapped to form cabinet but frustrated by military, which refuses to appoint ministers; HAYASHI Senjuro then tapped instead Memorial Declining the Imperial Order to Form a Cabinet (Manuscript)
      "Extra!", Hochi Shinbun
  June 4 Formation of 1st KONOE Fumimaro Cabinet  
  July 7 Marco Polo Bridge Incident (starting 2nd Sino-Japanese War)  
  November 15 Opening of 6th Convention of the Shakai Taishuto (Socialist Masses' Party) Declaration, 6th Convention of the Shakai Taishuto
Showa 13(1938) April 1 Promulgation of National General Mobilization Law National Mobilization Plan for 1942 (Showa 17)
      Revised Outline of Resource Mobilization Plan for 1944 (Showa 19) (Appended to Supply Capacity Blueprint)
Showa 14(1939) September 1 Germany invades Poland, setting off the Second World War  
Showa 15(1940) February 2 SAITO Takao's anti-military speech stirs political controversy Representative SAITO's Statements Ignoring Admonition
      Kampo (Official Gazette) Gogai (Extra) , Stenographic Record of Legislative Proceedings of the 75th Session of the Imperial Diet House of Representatives number Five, Number Six
      Excised Portion of SAITO Takao's Speech
  June 24 KONOE Fumimaro resigns as Privy Council chairman, and announces resolve to promote movement for new political system Diary of ARIMA Yoriyasu
  July 6 Shakai Taishuto (Socialist Masses' Party) dissolved, followed by dissolution of all other political parties in July and August Notification of Disbandment of Political Parties
  July 22 Formation of 2nd KONOE Fumimaro Cabinet  
  September 27 Japan, Germany and Italy sign treaty of military alliance (Axis)  
  October 12 Launch of Taisei Yokusankai (Imperial Rule Assistance Association) Basic Plan for Realizing the Taisei Yokusankai
Showa 16(1941) July 28 Japanese Army occupies southern French Indochina  
  October 18 Formation of TOJO Hideki Cabinet  
  December 8 Japanese military attacks Pearl Harbor, starting the war with the United States (December 7 Hawaii time) Letter from KONOE Fumimaro to ARITA Hachiro
      Letter from YOSHIDA Shigeru to MAKINO Nobuaki
      Air Defense Manual
Showa 17(1942) February 2 Formation of Great Japan Women's Association Overview of Great Japan Women's Association
  April 30 21st election of the House of Representatives (Yokusan Election) Proceedings of the General Convention Establishing the Imperial Rule Assistance Political Association: General Outline of Bylaws of Imperial Rule Assistance Political Association Proclamation; the Platform
  June 5-7 Battle of Midway (considered the turning point of the war)  
Showa 18(1943) February 1 Japanese Army begins retreat from Guadalcanal  
Showa 19(1944) July 22 Formation of KOISO Kuniaki Cabinet Daily Logs of Sept.-Oct. 1944 (Showa 19)
      Diary of TAKAGI Sokichi
  Starting October 20 Battle of Leyte (Philippines)  
Showa 20(1945) February 4-11 U.S., U.K. And Soviet Union hold Yalta Conference  
  March 9-10 Massive air raid on Tokyo  
  April 1 American troops land on main island of Okinawa  
  May 7 Germany surrenders unconditionally to Allies  
  May 25-26 Tokyo mostly incinerated and destroyed in air raid; other major cities also bombed OKI's Account of the War Devastation of 16 May - 8 June and 14 July 1945 (Showa 20)
      Tactical Mission Report Mission No.183
      Mission Summary Mission Number 183
      Pamphlets Dropped by U.S. Military on Japan
  July 26 U.S., U.K. and China jointly issue Potsdam Declaration  
  August 6 Atomic bomb dropped by United States on Hiroshima Hiroshima Reconstruction: Urban Planning Map for Street Network and Park Layout (1:20,000 scale)
  August 8 Soviet Union declares war on Japan in final days of the conflict  
  August 9 Atomic bomb dropped by United States on Nagasaki Nagasaki City Map (1:10,000 scale)
  August 14 Japan accepts terms of Potsdam Declaration  
  August 15 Emperor broadcasts (recorded) surrender declaration Letter from YOSHIDA Shigeru to KURUSU Saburo
  September 2 Signing of surrender documents on USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay  
  September 4-5 88th Extraordinary Diet Session held Interpellation on Measures to be Taken by the Government to Clarify the Causes Leading the Unfavorable End of the Great East Asian War and Assessing Responsibility
      Reflections on the Government's Defense of Its Position
  September 22 U.S. Government announces initial post-surrender policy for Japan U.S. Initial Post-Surrender Policy for Japan (SWNCC150/4/A)
  October 4 GHQ issues democratization directive Memorandum for: Imperial Japanese Government. Through: Central Liaison Office, Tokyo. Subject: Removal of Restrictions on Political, Civil, and Religious Liberties.(SCAPIN-93)
  Starting November New political parties formed one after another Record of Preparation for the Formation of the New Japan Liberal Party
      Akahata, Vol. 1
      Declaration
      Platform of the Japan Progressive Party
      Political Parties in Japan
      Political Parties in Japan: Developments during the Week Ending November 17, 1945
  November 2 Formation of Japan Socialist Party  
  November 9 Formation of Japan Liberal Party  
  November 16 Formation of Japan Progressive Party  
  December 1 4th Convention of the Japan Communist Party  
  December 17 Promulgation of revisions to House of Representatives Election Act  
Showa 21(1946) January 4 GHQ issues purge directive of "undesirables" from public office Memorandum for: Imperial Japanese Government. Through: Central Liaison Office, Tokyo. Subject: Removal and Exclusion of Undesirable Personnel from Public Office
      "The Showa 21 Diary"
  February 13 GHQ hands Japanese Government draft proposal relating to revisions in the Constitution Outline of Constitutional Reform
      Constitution of Japan (GHQ Draft)
  March 6 Japanese government announces Outline of a Draft for a Revised Constitution Outline of a Draft for a Revised Constitution
  April 10 22nd general election of the House of Representatives Poster from the First Postwar General Election
      Draft of Election Campaign Speech
      Recommendation Letter
  May 22 Formation of 1st YOSHIDA Shigeru Cabinet  
  November 3 Promulgation of new Constitution of Japan  
Showa 22(1947) January 4 Expansion of scope of purge of "undesirables" from public office Memorandum for: Imperial Japanese Government. Through: Central Liaison Office, Tokyo. Subject: Elimination of War Profits and Reorganization of National Finance
      On the Investigation into My Qualifications
      Letter of Resignation
  January 31 MACARTHUR orders cessation of general strike scheduled the following day (February 1) Recommendations with Respect to U.S.Policy toward Japan (NSC13/2)
  April 20 1st regular election of new House of Councilors House of Councilors Candidate Poster
  May 3 Constitution of Japan takes effect  
  May 24 Formation of KATAYAMA Tetsu Cabinet (first Socialist prime minister in Japan) Letter of YOSHIDA Shigeru to MAKINO Nobuaki
      [General MacArthur's Statement]
Showa 23(1948) June 23 Arrests made of Finance Ministry officials and later, certain cabinet members, for receiving bribes from president of Showa Denko (Showa Denko Incident)  
Showa 24(1949) March 7 GHQ fiscal policy adviser Joseph Dodge announces implementation of Nine Principles for Economic Stability (the "Dodge Line")  
July 4 Japan National Railways announces first set of layoffs (Shimoyama Incident occurs the following day) Why object to being fired?
Showa 25(1950) June 6 MACARTHUR orders purge of Communist Party officials [Douglas MacArthur's Letter to Prime Minister]
  June 25 Outbreak of the Korean War  
  July 8 MACARTHUR orders formation of National Police Reserve [Douglas MacArthur's Letter to Prime Minister]
      Reflections on the Police Reserve
  July Formation of Sohyo (General Council of Trade Unions of Japan) "Documents Related to the Inaugural Rally of the General Council of Trade Unions of Japan: Statement of Purposes, Inaugural Rally"

Showa 26

(1951)

August 6 Purge of undesirables from public office lifted on HATOYAMA Ichiro and others New diary, 1950~1952
  September 8 Signing of San Francisco Peace Treaty and U.S.-Japan Security Treaty The Decision on the Stance to Take toward Both the Peace and Security Treaties
  October 24 Socialist Party splits into rightist and leftist factions  

Showa 27

(1952)

February 8 Formation of Japan Reform Party Platform of Japan Reform Party, declaration, release of policy guidelines, and others
  April 28 San Francisco Peace Treaty and U.S.-Japan Security take effect, restoring Japan's independence as an ally of the United States  
  May 1 Bloody May Day incident  
  August 28 Dissolution of House of Representatives (unscheduled dissolution) Letter from YOSHIDA Shigeru to HAYASHI Joji and MASUTANI Shuji
  September 29 Expulsion by Liberal Party of ISHIBASHI Tanzan and KONO Ichiro Letter from HATOYAMA Ichiro to YOSHIDA Shigeru
  October 15 Creation of National Safety Forces  
  October 30 Inauguration of fourth YOSHIDA Cabinet  
  November 28 Passage of motion of no-confidence against International Trade and Industry Minister IKEDA Hayato at plenary session of House of Representatives  

Showa 28

(1953)

March 14 Passage of motion of no-confidence against YOSHIDA Cabinet at House of Representatives plenary session (Diet dissolution resulting from YOSHIDA's use of the word "stupid" in Diet debate) Statement declaring separation from the Liberal Party
      Itinerary of election campaign for April 1953 general election
  March 18 Formation of so-called "HATOYAMA Liberal Party"  
May 21 Inauguration of fifth YOSHIDA Cabinet  

Showa 29

(1954)

February 23 Granting by House of Representatives of arrest of Liberal Party lawmaker ARITA Jiro (Shipbuilding Scandal of 1954)  
  March 1 No. 5 Fukuryu Maru fishing boat contaminated by nuclear fallout from U.S. thermonuclear bomb test on Bikini Atoll  
  April 21 Exercise of authority by Justice Minister INUKAI Takeru over bribery case (non-approval of plan to arrest Liberal Party Secretary General SATO Eisaku)  
  June 9 Creation of Self-Defense Forces  
  November 24 Formation of Japan Democratic Party Preparatory meeting for launching new party
      Senior officials of committee for launching new party
      Draft platform
      Draft declaration, resolution and guideline for new party's organizational structure (draft)
      Party rules and codes for Japan Democratic Party (draft)
      Policy guideline (draft)
      Report by new party-naming committee
      Declaration for inaugurating Japan Democratic Party, party platform, policy guideline, party rules and codes
  December 7 Resignation of YOSHIDA Cabinet Suggestion to Prime Minister (at Cabinet meeting)
  December 10 Inauguration of first HATOYAMA Ichiro Cabinet  

Showa 30

(1955)

October 13 Meeting to unify two Japan Socialist Party factions Paper declaring unification of two Japan Socialist Party factions, read out at the party's meeting
      Party platform of Japan Socialist Party, party policies, and party guideline
  November 15 Formation of Liberal Democratic Party (integration of conservative parties) Diary from the end of March 1955 to September 15, 1955
      Draft agenda at the meeting for launching new party
      Letter from YOSHIDA Shigeru to HAYASHI Joji and IKEDA Hayato

Showa 31

(1956)

October 19 Japan-Soviet Joint Declaration for Restoration of Diplomatic Ties Memoranda related to Japan-Soviet negotiations
      Letter from YOSHIDA Shigeru to HAYASHI Joji
  December 18 Unanimous approval of Japan's U.N. membership at U.N. General Assembly  
  December 23 Inauguration of ISHIBASHI Tanzan Cabinet Autographs for campaign speech

Showa 32

(1957)

February 23 Resignation of ISHIBASHI Tanzan Cabinet  
  February 25 Inauguration of first KISHI Nobusuke Cabinet  

Showa 33

(1958)

June 12 Inauguration of second KISHI Nobusuke Cabinet  
  October 8 Presentation by government of bill to revise Police Official Duties Execution Act to Diet Paper listing demands on Diet proceedings
  November 22 Agreement between Liberal Democratic Party and Japan Socialist Party to let House of Representatives session adjourn without continuing to make deliberation on the Police Official Duties Execution Act  

Showa 34

(1959)

March 28 Creation by Japan Socialist Party, General Council of Trade Unions of Japan, and Japan Council against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs of national council to block revision of Japan-U.S. Security Treaty  
  September 7- Visit to P.R. China by former Prime Minister ISHIBASHI, release of joint statement by ISHIBASHI and ZHOU Enlai Greeting letter following visit to P.R. China
  October 25 Leaving of Japan Socialist Party by NISHIO Suehiro and others  

Showa 35

(1960)

January 19 Signing of new Japan-U.S. Security Treaty in Washington  
  January 24 Formation of Democratic Socialist Party Platform issue
  May 19 Single-handed vote taking by Liberal Democratic Party at the House of Representatives' special committee on the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty on bill to revise new Japan-U.S. Security Treaty and subsequent vote taking on the bill by House of Representatives plenary session in small hours of May 20 Notebook New Japan-U.S. Security Treaty (1)
      Autograph for question and answer at the House of Representatives' special committee on the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty (1)
      Diary by House of Representatives Secretary General
      Letter from EISENHOWER to KISHI Nobusuke
      Speech autograph in which dissolution of the Diet was demanded
  June 10 Visit to Japan by U.S. President's Press Secretary and his escape aboard helicopter of U.S. military after being surrounded by demonstrators upon arriving in Japan (Hagerty Incident)  
  June 15 Storming into Diet building by mainstream faction of All-Japan Federation of Students' Self-Governing Associations and subsequent clash with riot police, resulting in death of one University of Tokyo student  
  June 23 Exchange of ratification paper for new Japan-U.S. Security Treaty and entering into force of the new treaty; announcement by Prime Minister KISHI to resign  
  July 15 Resignation of KISHI Nobusuke Cabinet  
  July 19 Inauguration of first IKEDA Hayato Cabinet  
  October 12 Assassination of Japan Socialist Party Chairman ASANUMA Inejiro at Hibiya Public Hall Comments that Japan Socialist Party Chairman ASANUMA made in Osaka
  December 27 Government's adoption of plan to double people's incomes  

Showa 36

(1961)

February 5 Adoption by Japan Socialist Party of new policy seeking structural reform  
  July 18 Reshuffle of IKEDA Cabinet  
  September 25 Convening of 39th extraordinary Diet session Manuscript of Prime Minister IKEDA's keynote speech (economic portion)
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