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Senchu Hassaku

SAKAMOTO Ryoma's conception of the form of government: Memorandum on "Senchu Hassaku"

Based on his so-called "Senchu Hassaku," SAKAMOTO Ryoma drafted this proposal for the form of government.

Commentary


Draft of White Paper for the Establishment of a Popularly-elected Assembly (three versions)

Draft of White Paper for the Establishment of a Popularly-elected Assembly (three versions)

Three versions of the White Paper for the Establishment of a Popularly-elected Assembly, which heralded the Freedom and People's Rights Movement. The differences and similarities in the expressions give a glimpse of the how the draft was polished.

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Draft of Kenken Yoroku: The 1st Sino-Japanese War as seen by the Foreign Minister

Draft of Kenken Yoroku: The 1st Sino-Japanese War as seen by the Foreign Minister

Retrospective (draft) written by the Foreign Minister during the 1st Sino-Japanese War, MUTSU Munemitsu, looking back upon at the diplomacy of the time.

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Photograph from the time of the Seiyukai's founding (Oct. 3, 1900, or Meiji 33), taken in front of the entrance to Rikken Seiyukai's headquarters

Establishment of the Rikken Seiyukai (Friends of the Constitutional Government Party)

The Rikken Seiyukai was one of Japan's major political parties ever since its inception in 1900 (Meiji 33) until the beginning of the Showa Period (late 1920s).

Commentary


Resolution of the National Universal Suffrage Federation

Universal Suffrage Movement: The age of democracy

After the First World War, Japan entered a period of party-based politics, with the rise in the fortunes of democracy both domestically and abroad.

Commentary


Full Account of My Final Determination of Our Position at the London Conference

London Naval Treaty: Turning point for party-based politics

Backed by popular opinion, the HAMAGUCHI Cabinet overcame the opposition of the Naval General Staff and the Privy Council to force the ratification of the London Naval Treaty, marking the high tide of party-based politics in prewar Japan.

Commentary


Memorandum of SAIONJI Kinmochi

May 15 Incident: The end of party cabinets

After the May 15 Incident (assassination attempt on Prime Minister INUKAI), the elder statesman (Genro) SAIONJI Kinmochi wrote down the wishes of Emperor Hirohito (the Showa Emperor). After that, party-based politics did not revive until Japan's defeat in 1945.

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Diary of TAKAGI Sokichiナ@

Diary of TAKAGI Sokichi: The Japanese Navy's attempts to end the war

Having received a secret order to find ways to end the war, Rear Admiral TAKAGI Sokichi wrote this dairy. He shuttled among senior statesmen, army and navy officials, and imperial family members under the direction of Naval Minister YONAI Mitsumasa.

Commentary


Letter from YOSHIDA Shigeru to KURUSU Saburo

YOSHIDA Shigeru's postwar period: Signs of restoration and rebirth

This letter, written by YOSHIDA Shigeru immediately after the war's end, brims with his joy over Japan's release from militarism, and is full of hope for the country's reconstruction.

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Poster from the First Postwar General Election

First Postwar General Election: Women gain suffrage for the first time

The first postwar general election was also the first time that Japanese women got the right to vote. Some 39 female legislators got elected.

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