Incunabula - Dawn of Western Printing

Watermarks and chain lines on different formats

The letter "r" indicates the front side of the leaf (recto) and the letter "v" indicates the back of the leaf (verso).
Red line Red lines indicate the same edge of the sheet of paper.

Whole paper (Vertical chain lines, watermark at right side)

Folio (two leaves, four pages) has the two patterns shown below according to the way of folding paper.

Pattern A

Valley fold

Development elevation (ordering 1r, 1v, 2r, 2v. Watermark appears on 2r and 2v)

Pattern B

Mountain fold

Development elevation (ordering 1r, 1v, 2r, 2v. Watermark appears on 1r and 1v)

Quarto (four leaves, eight pages) has the four patterns shown below according to the way of folding paper.
Click once for an animated view of the patterns.

Pattern A

Valley fold to Mountain fold

Development elevation (ordering 1r, 1v, 2r, 2v, 3r, 3v, 4r, 4v. Watermark appears on 2r, 2v, 3r and 3v)

Pattern B

Valley fold to Valley fold

Development elevation (ordering 1r, 1v, 2r, 2v, 3r, 3v, 4r, 4v. Watermark appears on 2r, 2v, 3r and 3v)

Pattern C

Mountain fold to Valley fold

Development elevation (ordering 1r, 1v, 2r, 2v, 3r, 3v, 4r, 4v. Watermark appears on 1r, 1v, 4r and 4v)

Pattern D

Valley fold to Valley fold

Development elevation (ordering 1r, 1v, 2r, 2v, 3r, 3v, 4r, 4v. Watermark appears on 1r, 1v, 4r and 4v)

Octavo (eight leaves, 16 pages) has the eight patterns shown below according to the way of folding the paper.

Pattern A

Pattern A; watermark appears on 2r, 2v, 3r, 3v, 6r, 6v, 7r and 7v
left to right, ordering 1r, 1v, 2r, 2v, 3r, 3v, 4r, 4v, 5r, 5v, 6r, 6v, 7r, 7v, 8r, 8v
or

Pattern A'

Pattern A'; watermark appears on 2r, 2v, 3r, 3v, 6r, 6v, 7r and 7v (left part and right part switch their positions from pattern A as of the centerline)
left to right, ordering 1r, 1v, 2r, 2v, 3r, 3v, 4r, 4v, 5r, 5v, 6r, 6v, 7r, 7v, 8r, 8v

Pattern B

Pattern B; watermark appears on 1r, 1v, 4r, 4v, 5r, 5v, 8r and 8v
left to right, ordering 1r, 1v, 2r, 2v, 3r, 3v, 4r, 4v, 5r, 5v, 6r, 6v, 7r, 7v, 8r, 8v
or

Pattern B'

Pattern B' ; watermark appears on 1r, 1v, 4r, 4v, 5r, 5v, 8r and 8v (left part and right part switch their positions from pattern B as of the centerline)
left to right, ordering 1r,1v,2r,2v,3r,3v,4r,4v,5r,5v,6r,6v,7r,7v,8r,8v

Pattern C

Pattern C; watermark appears on 2r, 2v, 3r, 3v, 6r, 6v, 7r and 7v
left to right, ordering 1r, 1v, 2r, 2v, 3r, 3v, 4r, 4v, 5r, 5v, 6r, 6v, 7r, 7v, 8r, 8v
or

Pattern C'

Pattern C'; watermark appears on 2r, 2v, 3r, 3v, 6r, 6v, 7r and 7v (left part and right part switch their positions from pattern C as of the centerline)
left to right, ordering 1r, 1v, 2r, 2v, 3r, 3v, 4r, 4v, 5r, 5v, 6r, 6v, 7r, 7v, 8r, 8v

Pattern D

Pattern D; watermark appears on 1r, 1v, 4r, 4v, 5r, 5v, 8r and 8v
left to right, ordering 1r, 1v, 2r, 2v, 3r, 3v, 4r, 4v, 5r, 5v, 6r, 6v, 7r, 7v, 8r, 8v
or

Pattern D'

Pattern D'; watermark appears on 1r, 1v, 4r, 4v, 5r, 5v, 8r and 8v  (left part and right part switch their positions from pattern D as of the centerline)
left to right, ordering 1r, 1v, 2r, 2v, 3r, 3v, 4r, 4v, 5r, 5v, 6r, 6v, 7r, 7v, 8r, 8v

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